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AAU: Assigned Amount Unit

AER: alternative Energy Requirement. This is the scheme through which the Irish Government awards contracts to the producers of electricity from renewable sources and from peat.

AMWS: annual mean wind speed ash: the material left after complete combustion of a fuel. for clean wood usually about 0.5 to 1 % on dry weight basis.

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BFB: Bubbling fluidised bed

BNE: Best New Entrant

Biomass: Biomass is the biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste.

Bioenergy: Bioenergy is the general term used to denote renewable energy derived from biomass.

Basic density: ratio of the mass on dry basis and the solid volume on green basis

Bark: organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees and bushes) on the outside of the growth zone (cambium) as a shell for the wooden body

Biofuel: fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass

Bridging: tendency of particles to form a stable arch across an opening and hindering flow

Bulk density: the ratio of the mass on wet basis and the solid volume bulk volume: volume of a material including space between the particles

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CCGT: Combined cycle gas turbine

CDM: Clean development mechanism

CER: Commission for Energy Regulation

CER: Certified emission reductions CFB: Circulating fluidised bed

CHP: Combined heat and power

CM: Centimetre

CO: carbon monoxide, poisonous gas

CO2: Carbon dioxide

COP: Conference of Parties

COFORD: Council for Forest Research and Development

Calorific value: energy amount per unit mass or volume released on complete combustion

Chips: see wood chips

Chunkwood: wood cut with sharp cutting devices in which most of the material has a typical length, substantially longer and more coarse than wood chips. Chunkwood has a typical length of 50 to 150 mm

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DECC: Department of the Environment, Climate and Communications

DM: Dry matter

DAFM: Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. DAFM, through the Forest Service, is responsible for forest policy in Ireland. 

Demolition wood: used wood arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations

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EC: European Commission

ERU: Emission Reduction Units

ESB: Electricity Supply Board

ESRI: Economic and Social Research Institute

ET: Emissions trading

EU: European Union

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FBC: Fluidised bed combustion

Firewood: cut and split oven-ready fuelwood used in household burning appliances like stoves, fireplaces and central heating systems

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GBP: Pounds, sterling

GHG: Greenhouse gas

GJ: Gigajoule

GW: Gigawatt

GWh: Gigawatt-hour

Green chips: wood chips made of fresh logging and thinning residues, including branches, tops and needles/leaves

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H: Hour

Ha: Hectare heating value: energy amount per unit mass or volume released on complete combustion

Hog fuel: fuelwood in the form of pieces of varying size and shape, produced by crushing with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, teeth or flails

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IGCC: Integrated gasification combined cycle

IPP: Independent Power Producer

IPPC: Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

ITC: Irish Timber Council

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JI: Joint implementation

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kg: Kilogram

kTOE: Kilo tonnes of oil equivalent

kW: Kilowatt kWe: Kilowatt electrical

kWh: Kilowatt-hour

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Loose volume: volume of a material including air space between the particles

Logging residues: woody biomass residues which are created during timber harvesting. they include tree tops and branches.

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M: Metre

MJ: Megajoule

Mtoe: Millions of tonnes of oil equivalent

MW: Megawatt

MWe: Megawatt electrical

MWh: Megawatt-hour

MWth: Megawatt thermal moisture content, wet basis: moisture content as a percentage of the total wet weight of a sample. Used in the wood for energy sector. moisture content, dry basis: the moisture content expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the sample. Mainly used in saw mill and board industry.

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NCCS: National Climate Change Strategy

NFFO: Non-fossil fuel obligation NGO: Non-government organisations

NOx: Oxides of nitrogen net calorific value: The calorific value of the fuel in MJ/kg at the moisture content as received.

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OPW: Office of Public Works

Oven dry wood: wood, free of moisture, produced by drying to constant weight at 105 degrees Celsius

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PPA: Power Purchase Agreement

PSO: Public Service Order

Pellets: see wood pellets

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R&D: Research and development

REA: Renewable Energy Sources Act

RES: Renewable energy share

RES-E: Renewable energy share - electricity

RMU: Emission Removal Unit

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SEAI: Sustainable Energy Authority Ireland

SOx: Oxides of sulphur SRC: short rotation coppice (harvesting every 2-3 years)

SRF: Short Rotation Forestry (harvesting after 5 to 15 years)

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T: Tonne, metric

TFC: Total Final Consumption

TGC: Tradable green certificate

TPER: Total Primary Energy Requirement

TWh: Terawatt-hour tree section: part of a tree (with branches) which has been cut into suitable length, but not processed.

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UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

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V: Volt

VAT: Value added tax.

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Wood pellets: woody biomass which has been densified under high temperature and pressure. They have usually a cylindrical shape and a diameter of 4 to 25 mm.

Whole tree: felled, underlimbed tree, excluding root system.

Wood chips: chipped woody biomass in the form of pieces with a defined particle size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools such as knives. wood chips have typical length of 5-50 mm and a low thickness as compared to the other dimensions.

Wood briquettes: woody biomass that has been compressed into solid blocks either with a cylindrical shape of over 25 mm diameter or in other shapes such as rectangular, octogonal etc.

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Copyright COFORD 2006.